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(Part III) A Practical Timeline for Establishing a Permanent Human Presence on the Moon and Mars using SLS and Commercial Launch Capability

6 Jul 2017, 17:15 UTC
(Part III) A Practical Timeline for  Establishing a Permanent Human Presence on the Moon and Mars using SLS and Commercial Launch Capability
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A rotating artificial gravity space station in Mars orbit beyond the orbital arc of Deimos. One ETLV-4 crew lander is docked at the station's central docking port while a crewed ETLV-4 approaches the station after visiting the surface of Phobos. by Marcel F. Williams Part III: Artificial Gravity and the Moons of Mars While traveling from Earth to the Moon or the Earth-Moon Lagrange points only takes a few days, human voyages between Mars and cis-lunar space will require a several months of travel time. So astronauts will have to be adequately protected from the deleterious effects of cosmic radiation (especially its heavy nuclei components), solar storms, and the microgravity environment. The notional crewed spacecraft proposed under this scenario all have habitat areas that provide at least 20 grams per centimeter squared of radiation shielding, enough to protect astronauts from the penetration of heavy ions and from harmful levels of radiation resulting from major solar events. Such levels of shielding in interplanetary vehicles should limit astronaut radiation exposure to less than 30 Rem per year during the worse cosmic ray conditions (the solar minimum). Permanently occupied space stations beyond the Earth's magnetosphere and that rotate to produce a simulated gravity ...

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